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Aleutian /Innu's Shamans' dance old lithograph!?


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Music from Aluku: Maroon Sounds of Struggle, Solace, and Survival
Various Artists

A cultural history in music of a 300-year path from slavery to present-day

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bronze in gold Boddhisattva amulette, Thailand photo collection ©  Madrason
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rasa wereld cultureel centrum
Papua australian section birdlike man somehow like the easternislands!
private collection ©  Madrason

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Batak couple ancestor old ironwood
private collection ©  Madrason
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Hier vindt u snel en makkelijk alles wat u wilt weten over
het Afrika Museum in Berg en Dal bij Nijmegen. Dit prachtige museum biedt een aantrekkelijke combinatie van enerzijds een binnenmuseum met een fraaie collectie en anderzijds een buitenmuseum met een sterk educatief en recreatief karakter. Het Afrika Museum wil met inspirerende presentaties en speciale activiteiten de bezoekers laten kennismaken met de rijkdom van Afrikaanse culturen.

Bakuba en Benelulua ancestor and king, Zaire photo collection ©  Madrason

Tropenmuseum | Linnaeusstraat 2 - 1092 CK - Amsterdam| tel. 020-568 8200 |
meer over voodou of voodoo of vodou
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Lees meer... for deeper study Click on the mythology filelink !

Kwele Mask
Moonschaped and a heartform pasted with kaolin
typical features for the Kwele from Congo. ©  Madrason

Many African peoples regard the earth as a female deity, a mother-goddess who rules all people and is the mother of all creatures. The earth lives and gives birth to ever new generations of beings. She will make the grass grow when heaven gives her rain and if there is no rain, she withdraws into her own depths, waiting for better times to come. Many regions of Africa have to endure a dry season when nothing grows and death reigns. As soon as the new rains, life begins miraculously. Grass sprouts, flowers open and the frogs croak, creeping out of the earth who hid them. Thus the earth conceals life, protects it against desiccation and revives it as soon as better times arrive. Without the gifts of the earth no one lives. Many African peoples believe that the ancestors live in the earth, in houses very similar to the ones they had here, on the surface of the earth. They also own cattle and goats there. Indeed there is a Zulu myth in which people go in search of the milk-lake under the earth, from where the milk is absorbed by the grassroots so that the cows and goats have milk from the earth. Where else could the milk come from? Our own flesh is earth; even the name Adam means 'earth'. All creatures are earth. Fire too, lives in the earth, which sometimes spits it out when in anger. Fire comes out of wood, so it, too, must come from the earth. Wind too, it is believed, comes out of caves in the earth. Thus all four elements come out of the earth. Yet, the earth is seldom worshipped; the libations which are poured down during numerous ceremonies are more addressed to the ancestors than to the earth as a whole. Nevertheless, the earth has a very powerful spirit which rules over our life and death. Sometimes, when she is perturbed, she moves, forests and mountains and all. Unlike man, the animals understand their mother and obey her, although sometimes she will have to punish a disobedient creature.
Jok - concept of the devine
Jok (Nilotic: Kenya, Uganda, Sudan). Jok is one of the most truly African concepts of the divine. It is a word, found with variations in all the Nilotic languages, as Jwok, Juok, Joagh, Joghi or Joogi. lt is not always translated with the same English word, because the dictionary writers had different philosophical ideas themselves, which demonstrates the power of the spirit that we call Jok. Jok is God and the spirits, the gods, the holy ghost, the beings from the other world. It can be vague and precise, good or frightening, beneficent or dangerous, one or a multitude, legion.
If a missionary had chosen the word Jok to denote God in his Bible translation, he would defend the notion that the Nilotes knew the One God. If he had taken another word to mean God, then he might use Jok to mean the 'spirits', or 'gods', or 'devils', thereby embarrassing those missionaries of another denomination who had used Jok to mean 'God'. This might be the origin of the confusion over Jok. This word incorporates all the contradictory ideas of the spiritual beings which in the minds of Europeans must be kept carefully separated. Jok is the unified spirit of God and the gods, personal and impersonal, local and omnipresent.
The Kikuyus are a large tribe. The speak a beautiful Bantu language and have lived on the slopes of Mount Kenya and surrounding districts for a vew long time. The first Kikuyu was called Kikuyu and lived in a village called Kikuyu, which is still there. The word kuyu means 'a fig', and kikuyu is a fig-tree, a fertility symbol in Africa as well as in Asia. Kikuyu had nine daughters, who became the ancestral mothers of the nine major clans of the Kikuyu nation. The Kikuyu word for God is Ngai, which means the Apportioner. Thus during creation, God apportioned his gifts to all the nations of the earth. To the Kikuyus he gave the knowledge of, and the tools for, agriculture, at which the Kikuyus have always excelled. God controls the rain and the thunder, with which he punishes evildoers when necessary. Every person has a spirit, ngoma, which after death becomes a ghost. The ngoma of a murdered man will pursue his murderer until the latter has to come out of hiding and give himself up to the police, which is better than being haunted by a vengeful, persistent spirit. Burial rituals for the elders are executed meticulously, because their spirits are feared; the spirits of lesser members of society are less dangerous. Certain trees are inhabited by spirits which may have to be propitiated with food offerings.
Like Jupiter, Ngai punishes those who do not keep their oath sworn in his name, by striking them with lightning. It seems that the people also believed that a man's character was decided by God, so that his life, too, was predestined. The Kikuyus have a strong feeling of propriety; they will abstain from whatever they feel is untoward. During the 1920s there was a prophet, Thiga wa Wairumbi, who received direct messages from God for his people.
Numerous myths are told in Africa about its biggest animal, the elephant, whose very size makes it unassailable in nature, except by man, who has weapons and magic to kill it. In the African fables the elephant is always the wise chief who impartially settles disputes among the forest creatures. A hunter in Chad found an elephant skin near Lake Chad and hid it. Soon he saw a lovely big girl crying, because she had lost her good 'clothes'. The hunter promised her new clothes and married her. They had many big children, for the son of an elephant cannot be a dwarf. One bad day when the grainstore was empty, his wife found the elephant skin at the bottom, where the hunter had hidden it. She put it on and went back to the bush to live as an elephant again. Her sons became the ancestors of the clan whose totem was the elephant. They do not have to fear elephants.
A myth of the Kamba in Kenya tells us how elephants originated. A very poor man heard of lvonya-Ngia, 'He that feeds the Poor'. He decided to go and find Ivonya-Ngia but it was a long journey. When he finally arrived, he saw uncounted cattle and sheep, and there, amidst green pastures, was the mansion of Ivonya-Ngia, who received the poor man kindly, perceived his need and ordered his men to give him a hundred sheep and a hundred cows. 'No', said the poor man, 'I want no charity, I want the secret of how to become rich.' Ivonya-Ngia reflected for a while, then took a flask of ointment and gave it to the poor man, saying: 'Rub this on your wife's pointed teeth in her upper jaw, wait until they have grown, then sell them.' The poor man carried out the strange instructions, promising his wife that they would become very rich. After some weeks, the canine teeth began to grow and when they had grown into tusks as long as his arm the man persuaded his wife to let him pull them out. He took them to the market and sold them for a flock of goats. After a few weeks the wife's canine teeth had grown again, becoming even longer than the previous pair, but she would not let her husband touch them. Not only her teeth, but her whole body became bigger and heavier, her skin thick and grey. At last she burst out of the door and walked into the forest, where she lived from then on. She gave birth to her son there, who was also an elephant. From time to time her husband visited her in the forest, but she would not be persuaded to come back, although she did have more healthy children, all elephants. It was the origin of elephants and it explains why elephants are as intelligent as people.
In Southern Africa there is told the tale of the girl who grew up so tall and fat that no man wanted her as a wife because she was accused of witchcraft. She was exiled from her village and wandered into the wilderness on her own. There she met an elephant who began speaking to her politely in good Zulu. She agreed to stay with him and he helped her to find wild cucumbers and other fruits of the forest. She gave birth to four human sons, all very tall and strong, who became the ancestors of the Indhlovu clan of paramount chiefs.
In the African fables, the elephant is usually described as too kind and noble, so that he feels pity even for a wicked character and is badly deceived. The Wachaga in Tanzania relate that the elephant was once a human being but was cheated out of all his limbs except his right arm, which now serves as his trunk. He paid for nobility!
The Ashanti of Ghana relate that an elephant is a human chief from the past. When they find a dead elephant in the forest, they give him a proper chief's burial.
angolan couple aquatint 1855
In July 1905, rebellion broke out in the area south of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania), against the newly instituted recruitment for compulsory work on the German cotton and sisal plantations. The senior German officer in command, Major Johannes, set out from Dar es Salaam and on 5 August captured Mohoro, where he arrested the two men who were locally regarded as the instigators of the rebellion. They were Zauberer, sorcerers, of the Ikemba tribe and one of them who was known as Bokero, had been selling to his fellow Africans a maji (this word can mean water, sap, juice, any body liquid or vegetable extract) which, he claimed, had been given him by the Snake God to whom he referred as Koleo. (The word koleo literally means 'a pair of tongs', suggesting that this serpent was a python, well known for squeezing its victims to death; the worship of the python is widespread in Africa). Bokero, whose real name was Kinjikitire Ngwale, came from Ngarambi Ruhingo in the Rufiji Valley. He was well known for his magic powers, particularly for his ability to raise the spirits of the dead so that a man could see his own ancestors. Bokero and his colleague were hanged by the Germans. Bokero's last words were that it did not matter, for his dawa had already spread to other parts of the country and with it the spirit of independence. This dawa, the famous maji, was composed of water, matama (sorghum) and perhaps other millet as well as roots and various secret ingredients. It could be sprinkled over a man, or carried on his chest on a string round his neck, in a bottle made from bamboo, or it could be drunk as medicine. In whatever way it was taken, the man who had taken it was supposedly immune to German bullets: they would become muddy, majimaji (Matschi Matschi), before hitting his body, and be harmless. Some women also took it, notably the Jumbess Mkomanira. The rebellion affected almost a quarter of the country and lasted for two years, until the summer of 1907, when the Jumbess Mkomanira was captured and hanged. Over a hundred thousand people died in the war, most of them from starvation. A Swahili poet, Abdul Karim Bin Jamaliddini, wrote an epic on the Majimaji rebellion in Lindi, in which we see the rebellion as a justified rising against the oppressors. It was published in Berlin in 1933, with a translation.
Destiny (Yoruba)
The Yoruba (Nigeria) believe that the success or failure of a man in live depends on the choices he made in heaven before he was born. If a person suddenly becomes rich, they will say that he chose the right future for himself, therefore poor people must be patient because even if they have chosen the right life, it may not have arrived yet. We all need patience. The word ayanmo means 'choice', and kadara means 'divine share for a man'; ipin means 'predestined lot'.
The Yoruba believe that there is a god, Ori, who supervises people's choices in heaven. Literally, ori means 'head' or 'mind', because that is what one chooses before birth. If someone chooses a wise head, i.e. intelligence, wisdom, he will walk easily through life, but if someone chooses a fool's head, he will never succeed anywhere. Ori could be considered as a personal god, a sort of guardian angel who will accompany each of us for life, once chosen. Even the gods have their Ori which directs their personal lives. Both men and gods must consult their sacred divination palm-nuts daily in order to learn what their Ori wishes. In this way, Ori is both an individual and a collective concept, a personal spirit directing each individual's life, and also a god in heaven, who is feared even by Orunmila.
In heaven, there is a curious character called Ajala, a very fallible man whose daily work is fashioning faces (ori) from clay. Sometimes he forgets to bake them properly, so they cannot withstand the long journey to earth prior to the beginning of life; especially in the rainy season the clay might be washed away and there would be a total loss of face!
All traditional African peoples agree that the soul of an individual lives on after death. Some people distinguish more than one spiritual essence living within one person, the life-soul or biospirit which disappears at the moment of definitive death, and the thought-soul which keeps his individual identity even after it is separated from the body. The life-soul can, according to some peoples in Africa and Asia, be separated during a person's life, in times of danger, and be kept hidden in a safe place, so that its owner can be harmed, mortally wounded even, but not killed, as long as his life-soul is safe. When the danger is past, the life-soul can be restored to the body and the person is hale and hearty again. The thought-soul lives on after death, but not for ever, it may gradually die and be forgotten. Souls of little children who died young, those of weak minds and insignificant persons will fade away after some years lingering.
If, however, an individual had a strong personality, a rich and famous man, a mother of many children, a chief, someone who was loved or admired, that soul will live on for many generations. Evil souls, too, may have a long afterlife: witches, sorcerers, the souls with a grudge, who have a score to settle, will wait for their revenge and haunt the living for years.
The oldest concept of the place where the dead continue their existence is the forest. The impenetrable depth of the great forests of Africa is the heartland of the spirits and of all magical beings. Where there are steep rocks, the dead reside in deep, dark caves, where their souls flutter about disguised as bats. Below the surface of rivers and lakes is the habitat of many souls. Many others linger on near the graveyards where they were buried. The good souls of the loved ones who have died, the wise parents' souls still accompany their living children and grandchildren.
The Yoruba (Nigeria) believe that each person has at least three spiritual beings. Firstly there is the spirit, emi, literally 'breath', which resides in the lungs and heart and is fed by the wind through the nostrils, just as the fire is fed through the twin openings in the blacksmith's bellows. This emi is the vital force which makes a man live, that is, breathe, rise up, walk, be aware, be active, work, speak, see, hear and make love. There is also the shadow or shade, ojiji, which follows its owner like a dog. When he dies, it awaits his return in heaven. The third is the eleda 'spirit' or ori 'head', also translated as 'guardian soul'; from time to time it has to be 'fed' by sacrifices. At death these spiritual aspects of a person leave the body and wait for him or her in heaven. An individual is expected to return to his clan as a newborn baby. Babatunde, 'Father returns' is a name which is given to a child when it resembles his father's father; Yetunde 'Mother returns' for a girl. Physical resemblances determine the identity of the baby. Before death, the emi-spirit may visit relatives, clan-members who will thus learn in a dream that their kinsman or -woman is going to die soon. Even in daytime, the cold presence of a dying relative may be felt from far away, as if he were close by. The ghosts of those who died in mid-life may go and live in distant towns and assume a quasi-physical existence there. A man who died early in life might even marry, his wife would not even know that her husband was dead already, a mere ghost. When the final hour arrives, the man dies a second time. After death the guardian soul arrives in heaven and confesses to the Supreme God Olorun what it has done on earth. The good souls will then be sent to the Good Heaven, Orun Rere. The souls of the wicked, those who are guilty of theft, murder or cruelty, poisoning, witchcraft or slander, will be sent to Orun Buburu, the Bad Heaven, as punishment.
Xhosa warrior Africa aquatint 1855
The Queen of Ethiopia
In the days of King Solomon, three thousand years ago, there lived in Ethiopia a dynasty of queens, who reigned with great wisdom. One queen, the Malika Habashiya or Abyssinian Queen of old legends, had a dream in which she held a kid in her lap. On waking up she found herself pregnant and in due course she gave birth to a baby daughter. But alas! The child had one goat's foot. When the queen died, Princess Goat's Foot succeeded her, since she had no other children. One day she heard of King Solomon and his great wisdom, so she wrote him a letter announcing her arrival at his court. She was hoping that his great knowledge might enable him to cure her foot but she did not mention that. The King, however, always knew in advance what was going to happen, so, in front of his new palace he had a large pool dug, so that all his visitors had to rinse their feet before arriving. When the Queen of Abyssinia arrived, she had to raise her skirt before wading through the pond, so that the King could see her legs, one normal and one caprine. In the pond was a piece of ironwood which was placed there on the King's orders. When the Queen's cloven foot hit it, she was cured. When she stepped out of the water, she noticed that she had two human feet. She was now a very attractive woman and Solomon fell in love with her. She wanted to go home, having achieved her purpose, but Solomon persuaded her to stay. He proposed marriage, but she refused. However, Solomon knew the answer to that too. He gave some orders to his servants and an hour later the cook served a very spicy meal. That night the Queen felt very thirsty but there was no water in the palace. The pond had been drained and the servants told her that only the King had water, so she had to go and beg Solomon for water in his bedroom.
There is a version of the tale which says that she had agreed to marry King Solomon only if she took something vital from him. She therefore stole into his bedroom like a thief, hoping to find water without waking him. However, Solomon was wide awake like every man in love. As she was drinking from his water jar, she felt his hand holding hers in the dark, while the King's voice asked: 'Is water not vital, my dear Queen?' She had to agree to marry him there and then, but the next day she insisted on going home. Solomon gave her a ring, saying: 'When you have a son, send him to me when he is grown up, and I will give him half my kingdom.' The Queen of Ethiopia took the ring and travelled back by boat along the Red Sea.
In due course she gave birth to a son whom she called David, after his father's father. When he came of age, his mother sent him to King Solomon, with numerous presents. When David entered Solomon's court, he noticed an empty chair next to the King's and sat down on it. Solomon asked him: 'What have you come for, handsome young man?' He replied: 'I am David of Ethiopia I have come to ask you for half of your kingdom, and here is the ring which you gave my mother.' Solomon embraced him when he recognized his ring, and spoke: 'So be it. I will give you Africa, which is half my kingdom.' According to the legend, the King was in his right to do so for God had given him the whole world as his realm. No one knew at that time how big Africa really was.
Mythical hero of the Swahili and Pokomo peoples of eastern Kenya. Historians have endeavoured to place Liongo in the chronology of the history of the Kenya Coast, as early as 1200 or as late as 1600. A large number of Swahili poems are attributed to Liongo, many of them popular wedding songs which are still performed at weddings, accompanied by special dancing, the so-called gungu dances, after the rhythm. Even the myth of Liongo is fragmentary and not a coherent story. Liongo was born in one of seven towns on the Kenya Coast which all claim the honour of being the great poet's cradle. He was exceptionally strong and as tall as a giant. He could not be wounded by any weapon, but when a needle was thrust into his navel, he would die; fortunately only he and his mother, whose name was Mbwasho, knew this. Liongo was King of Ozi and Ungwana in the Tana Delta, and of Shanga on Faza (Pate Island). He was passed over for the succession to the throne of Pate, which went to his cousin Ahmad (Hemedi), probably its first Islamic ruler. It seems that the advent of Islam caused the changeover from matrilinear to patrilinear succession. King (Sultan) Ahmad tried to get rid of Liongo and had him chained and gaoled. By means of a long and self-laudatory song, the refrain of which was sung by the crowds outside the prison, Liongo caused enough noise to file through his shackles without being heard by the guards. As soon as they saw him unchained, they fled, for he was a formidable man. He escaped to the mainland, where he lived with the Watwa, the forest-dwellers. Each episode of this saga is marked with a song, which has been preserved. He learned to perfect his sureness of hand with bow and arrow, so that he later won an archery contest organised by the king to entrap him, and escaped again. Little is known about Liongo's successful battles against the Galla (Wagala), whose king decided to offer him his own daughter in marriage so as to tie the hero to his own family. With her Liongo had a son who later betrayed and killed his father.
Suk (Western Kenya)
The Suk once had a great reputation as fierce warriors, beating even the dreaded Maasai-Samburu in c. 1850. The Suk are the first branch of the Kalenjin family of tribes to leave their original homeland of Mount Elgon's slopes. Originally only hunters, the Suk now herd cattle in Kerio Valley, living in peace with their neighbours if they can.
They believe in God, whom they call Tororut, offering him animal sacrifices. God's son is called Ilat; he has to fetch water for his father in Heaven. When he spills it, it rains on earth (ilat means 'rain'). Tororut's blessing must be invoked at least once a year for the crops and the cattle. An ox is selected by the priest, tusin, to be slaughtered; he rubs its blood on the chests of the participants, all men. In times of drought, famine or epidemic, similar rituals are necessary, to propitiate God. Personal illness is blamed on Oi, the spirit of disease, who may be expelled by emptying the sick man's house, after which the priest casts the evil spirit out, since it has nothing left to lurk behind inside. Tororut has a wife, the Pleiades, and a brother, Asis, the Sun-god. Tororut's wife Seta has three children, Ilat, 'Rai', Arawa, 'Moon', and Topoh, the 'Evening Star'. The appearance of the Pleiades marks the beginning of the planting season.
After death, a man's spirit may travel in the shape of a snake. In the bush, snakes may be killed, but if a snake enters a house, it must be given milk and meat since it is the spirit of an ancestor who can intercede with God on behalf of the living, in order to avert disease and other disasters. After death an old man or woman would be buried in his or her own hut, after which the descendants would move house; this was no hardship, since they were nomads anyway. Death 'infects' a house. The bereaved shave their heads, but when the New Moon appears, mourning ceases.
Africans know they depend on trees for firewood, without which their wives cannot cook their food. In some areas the goats can climb trees to eat the green leaves. The leopard lurks in a leafy tree to fall upon the Lonely traveller at night, and vipers do the same in Uganda. In some trees the bees make their nest where they store honey. Every big tree has a spirit. Some trees house many spirits. Whether a tree is a spirit or is inhabited by a spirit is not an easy question. The people will say: The tree has a spirit, or: in the tree there is a spirit. The spirit has a voice which the careful listener can hear and even understand if he knows the language of the spirits. This voice has to be preserved carefully by the drum maker. The boat-maker too, wants to keep the spirit of the tree in the wood so that it will protect the boatman against drowning in the treacherous rivers, when the tree has become a boat. The appearance changes, the spirit remains. Together in a forest, the trees have a collective spirit, powerful enough to be revered as a god.
Trees can be tricky. With their roots they can trip up the unsuspecting traveller, who will often believe that his enemy bewitched the root to do that. Thorny branches have the same function. In Namibia there is a tree that is believed to eat people: it catches them with its branches, opens its bark and swallows them up. Inside the tree, the victim can be heard singing a goodbye song to their relatives and friends. Only the Woodpecker can save them, for it possesses magic powers. For a fee, it will open the tree with its sharp bill. A man in Zaire was married to a tree. It gave birth to his children, a healthy boy and a girl who were human but knew the spirits of the forest and so became famous herbalists, for it is the doctors who need the trees for their medicines.
Kwele 3faced mask mortar Congo see mask above ©  Madrason
Sunbirds (Zimbabwe)
The sunbirds are two golden birds, which were found among the ruins of Zimbabwe about a century ago by one of the first explorers. They were probably discovered in the remains of a building which may have been the sun-temple of the ancient Bantu religion of the Shona people of Zimbabwe. These birds which form a pair, represent, it appears, two swallows, whose high and swift flight is praised by many poets of the old Bantu tradition, and about which the story-tellers relate that they can fly better even than the eagle.
The swallows, as is well known, are migrating birds. They arrive in southern Africa from Europe around the beginning of October, when spring is at its most beautiful and thousands of flowers are blooming. The sun is on its way up. The myth of the Shona people relates that the sunbirds belonged originally to the goddess Dzivaguru, the goddess of the earth, of the darkness of night, and of the rain clouds, of the pools and streams. The rainy season begins usually also in October, or later, when the gods are displeased.
We cannot live without sunshine, nor can we live without rain, yet we cannot have them at the same time, for rain and sunshine do not normally descend together. The great goddess Dzivaguru, whose name seems to mean Great Sun, ruled both heaven and earth in what may have been the oldest form of the Bantu religion, i.e. the religion of the peoples who speak Bantu languages. They have many myths in which the first man and woman on earth lived in darkness because the sun had not yet been discovered. The sun, the primal source of light, has to be captured so that people may have light to live by. The secret of the sun is that its light penetrates even in the darkest room, just as a swallow can fly through a house before anyone can catch it. Nosenga caught the sunbirds in his trap, and so day broke.
Malaika (East Africa)
A good spirit sent from heaven to help people. It can assume human form. The Malaika love people and will work for their benefit. God created them specially so that they might keep people on the straight path by sitting on their right shoulders and whispering in their ears what they should do or not do. The Malaika receive no food, because praying to God is their food. They have been created from the Light, Gods first creation, so they are entirely transparent and cannot even think evil, let alone do it. They always obey God, who will send an angel whenever he wishes to help a human being in distress. Normally angels are invisible, but once God sent the Angel Mikail to defeat a very powerful evil spirit. Mikail appeared in his full heavenly glory which was so dazzling that Karina was defeated by merely seeing him. She looked like an old woman after that encounter. Once Jiburili showed himself in his real form: standing astride the earth, his feet suspended above opposite horizons, he towered above the clouds. The angels are constantly guarding heaven against the attacks of the shaitani by throwing rockets (shihabu) at them, which we see as falling stars. Death too, is a malaika, who serves God by taking the souls of those God has decided must die now. He may also send angels to do battle against his enemies the unbelievers. The malaika wa vita, the Fighting Angels, will drop burning stones on the enemies.
Lees meer...



Dan mask poro-society Runner Ivory-Coast ©  Madrason

Dutch version of How I started My Hobby introduction ©  Madrason


waigou isl melanesians aquatint 1855

Zo rond 1900 tot ver voorbij de eerste Wereld-Oorlog, onstond er onder invloed van vooral de Afrikaanse (later Oceanische) primitieve kunst, grote interesse aan het niet-europese element van kunst en mens. Waar in Duitsland de Biedermeijer (drukke fauna en florale bombastische)- kunststroming tot zijn gestage einde bloeide ,kwam er   de Art Nouveau (mn. organisch en vloeiende lijnen) en pas wat later de Art Deco   (strakke klassieke lijnen soms met een vleugje organische stijl) tot grote bloei in mn.Europa. Deze laatste stromingen hebben veel ontleend aan vreemde culturen. In het Europa van deze tijd had men nog nauwelijks een ander "soort" mens aanschouwd .

Hooguit vanuit publicaties in de Volkenkunde ((die onder aanvoering van de Duitse Hoogleraar Volkerkunde Ratzel en vlak daarvoor de Engelsman missionaris HGJ Wood e.a.))kwam de niet europese mens en haar kunst  tot grotere bekendheid   onder de gewone bevolking .Het waren vooral de geillustreerde opkomende bladen en magazines Elseviers' Geillustreerde Maandblad Harpers' Monthly ,Le Monde Illustre en De Aarde en Haar Vokeren van Kruseman en  de Missionaristijdschriften /bladen uit heel Europa, die tot die verbeeldingdragende inspiratie en bekendheid  hadden geleid .

Maar we hebben  met name uit die tijd veel te danken aan illustratief beeldmateriaal uit het artistieke Frankrijk waar de Grote Graveurs een lange traditie hadden (foto's waren toen nog erg duur)- ((mn ook zijn wij dank verschuldigd aan de graveurs uit onze Zuiderlijke Nederlanden (sinds 1831 constitutioneel Belgie)). Onder leiding van vnl . Picasso onstond er een soort Primitivisme en Kubisme een soort Bijna Kinderlijk verwonderende Kunst -stroming   (van Gogh een icoon van deze overgang, naieveschilderkunst/pointilisme en Gaugain met zijn tropische kleuren import)

En hier onstaat de grote etnografische Boom! Plots waren infobronnen niet alleen meer voor de Elitie en de welgestelde middenklassen bereikbaar ,maar ook  was het  reizen meer algemeen  mogelijk geworden. Had je hier geen geld voor dan ging   je gewoon naar een museum of een wildwestshow of leende of las een boek in een van de nieuwe grote openbare bibliotheken. Wie waren toch die Anderen, dat was angstig bevreemdend maar daardoor juist ook erg spannend . Een Maatschappij als The Smithsonian Institution of Natural History had al een grote kennis opgedaan en publicaties achter zich ,ze genoten bekendheid zoals de National Geographic Magazine (reeds anderhalve eeuw oud). Deze maatschappijen hadden fondsen voor wetenschappelijke en later ook voor avontuurlijke - expedities. Denk aan Stanley op zoek naar Livingstone met fondssteun van een grote krant .De honger naar het vreemde kent natuurlijk haar grote episodes. Darwins reis met de Beagle, Cooks grote Reizen met de Forsters en daarvoor de Klassiekers.
Iets van het exotische in deze periode kwam ook voort uit de Napoleonitische Revival van Napoleons grote Noord-Afrika /Egypte-toer .De revival van Louis-stijlen met geincorporeerde Egyptologische stijlelementen zag men vlak voor 1900 weer terugkeren (mn in meubels en gebouwornamenten) dus het instinctmatig verlangen naar het vreemde nieuwe lag al te broeien in een notendop. Onvoorstelbaar dat in de nadagen van Rooie Sien en Pankhursts' Sufragettenbeweging , er een dame als David Alexandra o'Neel de moed had om als reizigster door het India van de Kasten naar Nepal, maar vooral door  naar Tibet te trekken, verkleed als man.Wat een succes werd dat toen ze met een  enorme schat aan informatie terugkwam, door haar publicaties toegankelijk voor iedereen gemaakt  .

In die nieuwe kunststromingen zoals art Deco   ((soberheid maar wel stijlvol (die in de 40er en 50er jaren weer verschraald terugkeerde onder de Ontzuilingsgloed))  ja in die strakke lijnenkunst zag je veel van de Klassieke oudheid en veel van de Egyptische stijl ((er werd toen ook volop gegraven   (door bijv H.Carter) en gevonden met als gevolg veel mystiek-lijkende spannende  gebeurtenissen en verhalen ) )   terugkomen en aangevuld worden. Ook het kubisme deed haar intrede onder de invloed van de kubistische Congokunst en de oud-Amerikaanse archeologische vondsten. Voortvloeiend uit deze kleine intro onstond dus ook mijn interesse in de etnografische kunst, de kunst van dat zoveel andere dan dat europese hapsnappirige opportune.  

Op de foto op deze bovenpagina ziet U een Gunye Ge of Draversmasker van de Dan uit de Ivoorkust. Bij de Poro-gemeenschap werden de jongelingen ingewijd in een nieuwe volwassen levensfase,; kwellingen, angsten, tatoeages en boze demonen met maskers moesten worden weerstaan in het donkere bos waar niemand ongestraft mocht komen. Een vergelijkbaar masker bevindt zich in mijn collectie; Let goed op de esthetiek en het verwonderbare van de prachtige lijnen. Europa trouwde met het (Afrika) andere schone van onze wereld en de wereld werd wat kleiner en misschien ook wel wat mooier. Nu nog onze huwelijkstrouw bewijzen. Groetjes en bedankt voor het lezen. !








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Gail Martin Gallery -
Ancient, antique and ethnographic textiles; modern and contemporary fiber arts. 




Thomas Cole Antique Rugs and Textiles -
Antique tribal and central Asian rugs, embroideries and other textile art. over spiegeling symmetrie en techniek
about mirroring  rotating of images on rugs and other techniques, from a colleague collector



TurkoTek -
A noncommercial site for collectors of textiles, especially tribal weavings from central and western Asia. Active moderated discussion boards.

©  Madrason Tekke Torba



The Nomads Tent -
Edinburghdealer site, with brief articles and book reviews.




Marla Mallett Textiles and Antique Oriental Tribal Rugs -
Lots of information on textile structure by a leading authority, with an ongoing on-line revision of her book. Includes rugs and textiles offered for sale.





Afghan War Rugs -
Collector's site about a type of rug produced in Afghanistanfollowing the Russian Invasion in 1979.




Stuttgarter Kunstauktionshaus Dr.Fritz Nagel -
Nagels holds several rug sales each year, with illustrated catalogues.




Oriental Rug Repair Co. -
Repair, cleaning and appraisal of Navajo and Oriental rugs.




Walter Schwitter -
Johannesburgbased dealer in antique and semi-antique oriental carpets.




Herat Ltd. -
Old tribal weavings, with a nice introduction to the subject for beginners.

Thomas Cole Antique Rugs and Textiles - Cached - Similar

Offering collectible antique tribal rugs, bagfaces, and weavings in addition to
Central Asian embroidery , specialist in Turkmen rugs.




Samarkand Galleries -
Informative commercial site run by British author/lecturer Brian MacDonald.




The Tribal Eye -
Peter Davies' site on tribal textiles.

soumak panel shahashavan mafrash bag for storage




Ron B. Saillian Oriental Rugs and Carpets -
Specialist dealer in Persian and Central Asian collectable rugs and trappings.




Brooke Pickering Moroccan Rugs -
Informative site by dealer specializing in Moroccan tribal rugs, flatweaves and other textiles.




Milton Cater Oriental Carpets -
A commercial site with a philosophical attitude. Includes a selection of worn rugs ("Noble Ruins") and a free online newsletter.





Frauenknecht Antique Rugs -
Content-rich, with excellent exhibitions, run by well known German dealer and author.




Seeing Is Dreaming -
Some nice essays on cultural significance and history of rug weaving, especially in Turkey.




Moroccan Hanbels -
Berber tribal rugs and textiles.




Turkmen Main Carpets -
About a CD-ROM featuring main carpets of the Turkmen.

©  Madrason Kapanuk



Vincent's Cave -
A virtual cave with rugs throughout. In Dutch and English.



Joshua Baer and Company -
Information and sales of Navajo blankets and rugs, Spanish colonial furniture and American Indian art.




Sun Bow Trading Company -
A colorful American dealer in tribal rugs and textiles.




TribalSource -
Antique textiles, by Istanbulgallery owner Seref Ozen.




Reuben Antique Carpets -
Dealer/Author David M. Reuben. Specializing in antique tribal, especially Turkmen, rugs.




Thanakra -
Parisdealer specializing in Moroccan textiles, with nice travel photos and periodic exhibitions.

beloutsj, baluch kelimback ©  Madrason


<td style="border-right: #ece9d8; padding-right: 0.75pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 0.7



Tattersall's -
Restoration and cleaning of tribal rugs. Based in Uppingham, UK.




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Websites en info on symbols:

A whole Symbols page on my site :browse click and enjoy !!!
The best site till now, index pages;
here you can even design and find your own symbols ENJOY !!

ht:// on index-html on sacred things ,magic etc on index-html on sacred things ,magic etc  psychological  on Egypt  bibliographic index-site  symbol carms and amulet and
their symbolic meaning and uses

©  Madrason

Elibelinde or hands-on-hips symbol in a charshangui torba.
The symbol represents mother earth (mountain) giving birth to life.

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deeper study;dictionaries and complete books etc.Enjoy!



THE dread of being harmed through so intangible a thing ashis name, which haunts the savage, is the extreme and more subtle form of the same dread which, for a like reason, makes him adopt precautions against cuttings of his hair, parings of his nails, his saliva, excreta, and the water in which his clothes--when he wears any--are washed, falling under the control of the sorcerer. Miss Mary Kingsley says that 'the fear of nail and hair clippings getting into the hands of evilly disposed persons is ever present to the West African. The Igalwa and other tribes will allow no one but a trusted friend to do their hair, and bits of nails or hair are carefully burnt or thrown away into a river. Blood, even that from a small cut on the finger. or from a fit of nose-bleeding, is most carefully covered up and stamped out if it has fallen on the earth. Blood is the life, and life in Africameans a spirit,

hence the liberated blood is the liberated spirit, and liberated spirits are always whipping into people who don't want them. Crammed with Pagan superstitions, the Italian who is reluctant to trust a lock of his hair to another stands on the same plane as the barbarian. Sometimes, as was the custom among the Incas, and as is still the custom among Turks and Esthonians, the refuse of hair and nails is preserved so that the owner may have them at the resurrection of the body. In connection with this, one of my sons tells me that his Jamaican negro housekeeper speaks of the old-time blacks keeping their hair-cuttings to be put in a pillow in their coffins, and preserving the parings of their nails, because they would need them in the next world. It is a common superstition among ourselves that when children's teeth come out they should not be thrown away, lest the child has to seek for the lost tooth after death. On the other hand, it is an equally common practice to throw the teeth in the fire 'out of harm's way.' But the larger number of practices give expression to the belief in what is known as 'sympathetic magic'; as we say, 'like cures like,' Or more appositely, in barbaric theory, 'kills like.' Things outwardly resembling one another are believed to possess the same qualities, effects being thereby brought about in the man himself by the production of like effects in things belonging to him, or in images or effigies of him. The Zulu sorcerers, when they have secured a portion oftheir victim's dress, will bury it in some secret place, so that, as it rots away, his life may decay. In the New Hebrides it was the common practice to hide nail-parings and cuttings of hair, and to give the remains of food carefully to the pigs. 'When the mae snake carried away a fragment of food into the place sacred to a spirit, the man who had eaten of the food would sicken as the fragment decayed.’ Brand tells that in a witchcraft trial in the seventeenth century, the accused confessed 'having buried a glove of the said Lord Henry in the ground, so that as the glove did rot and waste, the liver of the said lord might rot and waste'; and the New Britain sorcerer of to-day will burn a castaway banana skin, so that the man who carelessly left it unburied may die a tormenting death. A fever-stricken Australian native girl told the doctor who attended her that 'some moons back, when the Goulburn blacks were encamped near Melbourne, a young man named Gibberook came behind her and cut off a lock of her hair, and that she was sure he had buried it, and that it was rotting somewhere. Her marm-bu-la (kidney fat) was wasting away, and when the stolen hair had completely rotted she would die.' She added that her name had been lately cut on a tree by some wild black, and that was another sign of death. Her name was Murran, which means 'a leaf,' and the doctor afterwards found that the figure of leaves had been carved on a gum-tree as described by the girl. The sorceress said that the spirit of a black fellow had cut the figure on the tree. The putting of sharp stones in the foot-tracks of an enemy is believed to maim him, as a nail is driven into a horse's footprint to lame him, while the chewing of a piece of wood is thought to soften the heart of a man with whom a bargain is being driven. Folk-medicine, the wide world through, is full of prescriptions based on sympathetic or antipathetic magic. Its doctrine of 'seals' or 'signatures' is expressed in the use of yellow flowers for jaundice, and of eye-bright for ophthalmia, while among the wonder-working roots there is the familiar mandrake of human shape, credited, in virtue of that resemblance, with magic power. In Umbria, where the peasants seek to nourish the consumptive on rosebuds and dew, the mothers take their children, wasted by sickness, to some boundary stone, perchance once sacred to Hermes, and pray to God to stay the illness or end the sufferer's life. The Cheroki make a decoction of the cone-flower for weak eyes because of the fancied resemblance of that plant to the strong-sighted eye of the deer; and they also drink an infusion of the tenacious burrs of the common beggars' lice, an American species of the genus Desmodium, to strengthenthe memory. To ensure a fine voice, they boil crickets, and drink the liquor. In Suffolkand other parts of these islands, a common remedy for warts is to secretly pierce a snail or ‘dodman’ with a gooseberry-bush thorn, rub the snail on the wart, and then bury it, so that, as it decays the wart may wither away. Chinese doctors administer the head, middle or roots of plants, as the case may be, to cure the complaints of their patients in the head, body, or legs. And with the practice of the Zulu medicine-man, who takes the bones of the oldest bull or dog of the tribe, giving scrapings of these to the sick, so that their lives may be prolonged to old age, we may compare that of doctors in the seventeenth century, who with less logic, but perchance unconscious humour, gave their patients pulverised mummy to prolong their years. 'Mummie,' says Sir Thomas Browne, 'is become merchandise. Mizraim cures wounds, and Pharaoh is sold for balsams.' In Plutarch's Roman Questions, which Dr. Jevons, in his valuable preface to the reprint of Philemon Holland's translation, remarks 'may fairly be said to be the earliest formal treatise written on the subject of folk-lore,' reference is made to the Roman customs of not completely clearing the table of food, and 'never putting foorth the light of a lampe, but suffering it to goe out of the owne accord.'
1855 aquatint pritchard
These obviously come under the head of sympathetic magic, 'being safeguards against starvation and darkness.' In Melanesia, if a man wounds another with an arrow, he will drink hot juices and chew irritating leaves to bring about agony to the wounded, and he will keep his bow taut, pulling it at intervals to cause nerve-tension and tetanus in his victim. Here, though wide seas between them roll, we may compare the samle of philosophy of things at work. The 'sympathetic powder' used by Sir Kenelm Digby in the seventeenth century was believed to cure a wound if applied to the sword that inflicted it; and, to-day, the Suffolkfarmer keeps the sickle with which he has cut himself free from rust, so that the wound may not fester. Here, too, lies the answer to the question that puzzled Plutarch. 'What is the reason that of all those things which be dedicate and consecrated to the gods, the custome is at Rome, that onely the spoiles of enemies conquered in the warres are neglected and suffered to run to decay in processe of time: neither is there any reverence done unto them, nor repaired be they at any time when they wax olde?' Of course the custom is the outcome of the belief that the enemy's power waned as his armour rusted away. Equally puzzling to Plutarch was the custom among Roman women 'of the most noble an auncient houses' to 'carry little moones upon their shoes.' These were of the nature of amulets, designed to deceive the lunacy-bringing moon spirit, so that it might enter the crescent charm instead of the wearer. 'The Chaldeans diverted the spirit of disease from the sick man by providing an image in the likeness of the spirit to attract the plague.' 'Make of it an image in his likeness (i.e. of Namtar, the plague); apply it to the living flesh of his body (i.e. of the sick man), may the malevolent Namtar who possesses him pass into the image.' But the reverse effect was more frequently the aim. A Chaldean tablet records the complaint of some victim, that 'he who enchants images has charmed away my life by image'; and Ibn Khaldun, an Arabian writer of the fourteenth century, describes how the Nabathean sorcerers of the Lower Euphratesmade an image of the person whom they plotted to destroy. They transcribed his name on his effigy, uttered magic curses over it, and then, after divers other ceremonies, left the evil spirits to complete the fell work. In ancient Egyptian belief the ka of a living person could be transferred to a wax image by the repetition of formulae and there is no break in the long centuries between Accadian magic, which so profoundly influenced the West, and the practice of injuring a man through his image, which flourishes to-day. The Ojibways believe that 'by drawing the figure of any person in sand or clay, or by considering any object as the figure of a person, and then pricking it with a sharp stick or other weapon, or doing anything that would be done to the living body to cause pain or death, the person thus represented will suffer likewise.' King James I., in his Daemonology, Book II. ch. v., speaks of 'the devil teaching how to make pictures of wax or clay, that by roasting thereof the persons that they bear the name of may be continually melted or dried away by sickness; and, as showing the continuity of the idea, there are exhibited in the Pitt Rivers  Museumat Oxford, besides similar objects from the Straits Settlements, a 'Corp Creidh' or 'clay body' from the Highlands, and a pig's heart from Devonshire, with pins stuck in them. The assumed correspondence between physical phenomena and human actions is further shown in Dr Johnson's observation, when describing his visit to the Hebrides, that the peasants expect better crops by sowing their seed at the new moon; and he recalls from memory a precept annually given in the almanack, 'to kill hogs when the moon is waxing, that the bacon may prove the better in boiling.' With the ancient Roman custom of throwing images of the corn-spirit (doubtless substitutes of actual human offerings) into the river, so that the crops might be drenched with rain, we may compare the practice of the modern Servians and Thessalians, who strip a little girl naked, but wrap her completely in leaves and flowers, and then dance and sing round her, while bowls of water are poured over her to make the rain come. The life of man pulsates with the great heart of nature in many a touching superstition, as in the belief in the dependence of the earth's fertility on the vigour of the tree-spirit incarnated in the priest-king; in the group which connects the waning of the days with the decline of human years; and, pathetically enough, in the widespread notion, of which Dickens makes use in David Copperfield, that life goes out with the ebb-tide. 'I was on the point of asking him if he knew me, when he tried to stretch out his arm, and said te me, distinctly, with a pleasant smile, "Barkis is willin'." 'And, it being low water, he went out with the tide.' The general idea has only to be decked in another garb to fit the frame of mind which still reserves some pet sphere of nature for the operation of the special and the arbitrary. 'The narrower the range of man's knowledge of physical causes, the wider is the field which he has to fill up with hypothetical causes of a metaphysical or supernatural character.' We must not pass from these examples of belief in sympathetic connection, drawn from home as well as foreign sources, without reference to its significance in connection with food outside the prohibitions which are usually explained by the totem, that is, abstinence from the plant or animal which is regarded as the tribal ancestor. Captain Wells, who was killed near Chicago in 1812, and who was celebrated for his valour among the Indians, was cut up into many parts, which were distributed among the allied tribes, so that all might have the opportunity of getting a taste of the courageous soldier. For it is a common belief among barbaric folk that by eating the flesh of a brave man a portion of his courage is absorbed. The Botecudos sucked the blood of living victims that they might imbibe spiritual force, and among the Brazilian natives the first food given to a child, when weaning it, was the flesh of an enemy. Cannibalism, the origin of which is probably due to a scarcity of animal food, therefore acquires this superadded motive, in which also lies the explanation of the eating of, or abstaining from, the flesh of certain animals. The lion's flesh gives courage, the deer's flesh causes timidity; and in more subtle form of the same idea, barbaric hunters will abstain from oil lest the game slip through their fingers. Contrariwise, the Hessian lad thinks that he may escape the conscription by carrying a baby girl's cap in his pocket: a symbolic way of repudiating manhood. Most suggestive of all is the extension of the idea to the eating of the slain god, whereby his spirit is imbibed, and communion with the unseen secured. To quote Mr. Frazer, the savage believes that 'by eating the body of the god he shares in the god's attributes and powers; and when the god is a corngod, the corn is his proper body; when he is a vine-god, the juice of the grape is his blood; and so, by eating the bread and drinking the wine, the worshipper partakes of the real body and blood of his god. Thus the drinking of wine in the rite of a vine-god, like Dionysus, is not an act of revelry; it is a solemn sacrament.' Experience shows that people possessing intelligence above the ordinary often fail to see the bearing of one set of facts upon another set, especially if the application can be made to their traditional beliefs, whether these are only mechanically held, or ardently defended. It is, therefore, not wholly needless to point out that Mr. Frazer's explanation is to be extended to the rites attaching to Christianity, transubstantiation being, laterally or lineally, the descendant of the barbaric idea of eating the god, whereby the communicant becomes a 'partaker of the divine nature.' In connection with this we may cite Professor Robertson Smith's remark, that a notable application of the idea of eating the flesh or drinking the blood of another being, so that a man absorbs its nature or life into his own, is the rite of bloodbrotherhood, the simplest form of which is in two men opening their veins and sucking one another's blood. 'Thenceforth their lives are not two, but one. ' Among the Unyamuezi the ceremony is performed by cutting incisions in each other's legs and letting the blood trickle together. Fuller reference to this widely diffused rite will, however, have more fitting place later on, when treating of the custom of the exchange of names which, as will be seen, often goes with it. Belief in virtue inhering in the dead man's body involves belief in virtue in his belongings, in which is the key to the belief in the efficacy of relics as vehicles of supernatural power. Here the  continuity is clearly traceable. 


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Etnoconverse Illustrated database Click here: you'll need to install the esnipsdownloader to get access, sorry for that!

Enter the searchitem in the box right side above and you can find many complete illustrated libraries on ethnography and anthroplogy

Beneluba ancestor couple ©  Madrason

                   Franse Tibetoloog Michel Peissel onlangs overleden
                               publicatiedatum: 29-10-2011
                                      door: Guido van Oss

Michel Peissel, een Franse ontdekkingsreiziger en etnoloog, die een groot deel van zijn leven wijdde aan het in het kaart brengen van de Tibetaanse cultuur en natuur en talrijke expedities heeft geleid naar zelden bereisde plaatsen, is op 7 oktober 2011 overleden ten gevolge van een hartaanval in zijn huis in Parijs. Hij was 74. In zestien boeken en meer dan twintig documentaires heeft Peissel zijn verkenningen van ontoegankelijke of genegeerde regio's van de wereld, waaronder de Tibetaanse hoogvlakte, afgelegen Russische riviersteden en niet eerder geregistreerde Maya-ruïnes, vastgelegd.

Opgeleid in Engeland en Frankrijk, verliet Peissel vroegtijdig de Harvard Business School om een ontdekkingsreiziger te worden en zijn droom te volgen om meer begrip te krijgen van de volkeren in Tibet, van wie velen leefden in regio's die afgesloten waren voor buitenlanders.

Peissel moest vaak alle zeilen bijzetten, en de vaardigheden van zijn diplomatieke vader en zijn eigen charme inzetten om toestemming tot het bereizen van deze afgelegen gebieden te verkrijgen.

Met het doordringen van wat hij noemde het historische, ‘Grotere Tibet’, kreeg hij in de vroege jaren zestig van de vorige eeuw toegang tot de regio Mustang, dit leidde tot zijn boek: “Mustang: Lost Tibetan Kingdom”.

Zijn daarop volgende boek “Cavaliers of Kham”, waarin hij schrijft over de onderdrukking door de Chinezen, de vernieling van kloosters en de zwakke houding van de Tibetaanse vluchtelingen tegenover hun bezetter en de geheimzinnige Tibetaanse Khampa-guerrilla's, die Chinese troepen aanvallen met ondersteuning van de Amerikaanse CIA ‘deed nog meer stof opwaaien’.

De gevluchte Tibetanen waren boos over de hen verweten slapheid, Amerika over de blootgelegde geheime banden en de Chinese regering over de negatieve berichtgeving.

Te voet en te paard, met grote voorraden reisproviand, ploeterden Peissel en zijn sherpa's soms maandenlang aan een stuk door kleine, zelden onderzochte gebieden als Ladakh en Zanskar. In Zanskar vond hij twee broers die de rol van koning met elkaar deelden, hij schreef daarover het boek “Zanskar: The Hidden Kingdom.” Na jaren proberen wist hij toestemming los te peuteren om het teruggetrokken Koninkrijk Bhutan te bezoeken.

Peissel zag zichzelf als een avonturier, “een man met veel nieuwsgierigheid”. Hij was ook fotograaf, schilder, uitvinder, taalkundige en een gedreven verteller.

Na verloop van tijd werd hij meer en meer uitgesproken in zijn politieke opvattingen. In vloeiend Tibetaans, indentificeerde Peissel zich met de monniken, yak-hoeders, zouthandelaren en andere nomaden die hij leerde kennen in bijna dertig expedities, hij bekritiseerde de Chinezen en zelfs sommige Tibetanen, waaronder de Dalai Lama, voor het niet genoeg in opstand komen tegen de Chinese bezetter.

Hij schreef boos over de grootschalige vernietiging van de Tibetaans-boeddhistische kloosters en andere architectonische schatten. Eens schreef hij dat de vernietiging en het verval hem dreven zijn droom waar te maken om te leren wat hij kon over de mensen en de dieren van deze unieke beschaving, die nog deels uit het Stenen Tijdperk stamt, en om deze cultuur vast te leggen voordat deze zou verdwijnen.

In de traditie van vroegere ontdekkingsreizigers was Peissel een goede tekenaar en aquarellist, die zijn bevindingen vastlegde in suggestieve scènes en gedetailleerde lijntekeningen onder meer van kloosters. Zijn kunstwerk werd geëxposeerd in tentoonstellingen in Parijs en New York.

Peissel was trots op zijn ontdekkingen, zoals het identificeren van kleine, raszuivere Tibetaanse paarden, later Riwoche-paarden genoemd. Hij pochte over zijn expeditie naar wat hij noemde de ongrijpbare historische bron van de Mekong-rivier. Het resulteerde in zijn boek “The Last Barbarians.” Een van zijn laatste boeken, “Tibet: The Secret Continent”, noemde hij zijn bijbel waarin zijn kennis was samengebald.

Maar Peissel sprak net zo goed over reizen waarin hij met twee gebroken benen in een vrieswind aanbelandde, of de tijd dat hij moest wachten voordat zijn in modder en ijs vastgelopen truck door een passerende karavaan yaks werd vlotgetrokken, of de dag dat een deel van zijn muilezels in een afgrond stortten waardoor dieren, tenten en voorzieningen verloren gingen in kolkend water. “Reizen met hem was altijd een overwinning op het onmogelijke,” zei een van zijn zonen, Olivier, die soms meereisde.

(Gebaseerd op o.a. artikel in de New York Times van 15 oktober 2011)

Hartelijke groeten,

Guido van Oss

Ethnographical files on my collected database

Tribal literature on

Tribal Mythology


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the site from Arjan who carves ethnographic art miniatures
as if they are real, great artist with speciality indonsia and oceania as a new area
Site met indonesiche antiek en veel info over de Kris mijn 1e volkenkundige site


The public can experience the Colección Orinoco at
Other Fundación Cisneros Websites are:

Trivial Art Tribal Art = TA-TA  

a forum on which you can discuss or learn tribal art

esp for tribal art, ethnographic collectors teachers an anthropologists!

Aboriginals Canada portal


To General Resources - Africa, African Anthropology           To General Resources - Australia Aboriginal People    To General Resources - Native Americans    To African Tribal Resources   To Native American



    javanese dancer 1887 lithograph

 By peoples, tribes, ethnicity, regions

Asian Indigenous and Tribal People- General Resources 

Click on the tribe you want to study:

Afghan Culture People- Ainu Culture People- Achang Culture People- Andhra Pradesh People- Bai Culture People- Bhils Culture People- Blang Culture People- Buryat Culture People- Dongxiang Culture People- Ewenki Culture People- Filipino Culture People- Gadulia Lohars Culture PeopleHalakki Culture People- Hmong Culture People- Hui Culture People- Iban of Sarawak Culture People- Kazakh Culture People- Khmer Culture People- Korean Culture People- Manchu Culture People- Mongolian Culture People- Mundas Culture People- Qiang Culture People- Pakistani Culture People- Pashtun Culture People- Punjabi Culture People- Shan Culture People- Siberian Indigenous People- Taiwan Aborigines- Tamil Culture People- Tatar Culture People- Tibetan Culture People- Uygur Culture People- Yakut Culture People- Zhuang Culture People



Other Hilltribes in NorthernThailand

Click on the tribe you want to study:




First Nations Periodical Index


Index of native American resources on the Internet / Karen M. Strom 

 Native American Sites / Lisa Mitten 

The public can experience the Colección Orinoco at 

Other Fundación Cisneros Websites are:




paleosiberic tribes links;


umiak greenland


endless information on native

anthropology/archeology links also click Links for

 more on the left '; 



Here you can find Tatar related links on the Web




Site of Zulya Kamalova, Tatar singer - songwriter from Australia



Hermitage museum in St. Petersburg rusland-links

Het Peter de Grote museum van
antropologie en etnografie.


 greenland inuit female dancing in traditional dress





The Peoples
of the Red Book

Click on the tribe you want to study:  

Abazians (Abaza)
Asiatic Eskimos
Baraba Tatars

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